diabetes presentation titles

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diabetes presentation titles Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which cells cannot use blood sugar (glucose) efficiently for energy. This happens when the cells become insensitive to insulin ...

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Diabetes has profound long-term implications for the health of patients. In fact, overtime it affects almost every body system. Let''s briefly look at complications related to retina, kidneys, and nerves.

Damage to the retinal vessels causes inflammation, occlusion, and edema. These changes lead to circulatory issues causing the clinical manifestations of diabetic retinopathy. If left untreated, blindness can occur. Another complication that starts in the smallest vessels is diabetic nephropathy. High blood glucose can injure the capillaries of the glomeruli of the kidneys. One of the initial signs of this damage is the presence of albumin in the urine. Eventually, so much damage occurs to the glomeruli that proteins may also begin to appear in the urine. The damage and resulting changes to the glomerulus leads to renal dysfunction. Renal dysfunction is a source of hypertension, which further damages the glomeruli. This damage then continues in a cyclical manner.

The most common long-term complication of diabetes mellitus is peripheral neuropathy. The arterioles that serve the nerves become damaged, resulting in reduced blood flow and neuron demyelination. This leads to signs and symptoms such as sensory loss and pain or burning of the feet, which spreads up the lower extremities. It can also cause overall blunted pain sensation. This can mask awareness of serious conditions, such as myocardial infarction, or less serious conditions such a superficial skin wounds.

Damage to the arterioles that supply the nerves can also lead to autonomic neuropathy, which involves dysfunction of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. This dysfunction can have body wide effects, including cardiovascular implications, gastrointestinal problems, interference with the ability to perspire and bladder control issues. Damage to these involuntary nervous systems may also mask the symptoms of hypoglycemia.

Macrovascular angiopathy, or injury to the larger vessels also brings multiple complications, including coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral vascular disease. Because of hyperglycemia, those with diabetes are at an increased risk for infection. High levels of blood glucose suppress function of T cells and white blood cell phagocytes. In addition, hyperglycemia favors colonization by some microorganisms. This scenario leads to poor wound healing. The complications related to hyperglycemia reach all body systems and can combine to have serious implications. For example, the combination of poor wound healing and decreased sensation in the lower extremities can lead to severe damage to the feet. In fact, diabetes is the number one cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputations. Managing blood glucose level is therefore of the utmost importance.
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